If a Web site targets users in a particular geographic location then Google Webmaster Tools can be used to provide Google with information that will help  determine how the Web site appears in search results. This data supplements existing information such as language and IP address.

Insofar as Geo location is concerned Google will differentiate between two types of domain names:

ccTLD – Country-code top level domain names. These are associated to a specific country such as .fr for France or .ca for Canada.
gTLD  - Generic top level domain names. These are not associated to a specific country. So for example .com, .net, .org, .museum. are all generic as well as .eu and .asia as they cannot be associated to a specific country. Google will also treat some vanity domains such as .tv and .me as generic as search engine users as well as Webmasters frequently see these as more generic than country-targeted.

Factors used in determing Geolocation of a Web site:

  1. ccTLD is one of the best ways of indication the target area of a Web site as well as using Webmaster Tools’ manual geotargeting for gTLDs (this can be on a domain, subdomain or subdirectory
  2. Server location (through the IP address of the server)
  3. Local addresses and phone numbers on the pages, use of local language and currency, links from other local sites, and/or the use of Google’s Local Business Centre.

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